TEL 2591 X-Ray Energy Detector
- Perform X-Ray Fluorescence
- Investigate Mosley's Law
- Analyze the composition of alloys composed of metals below atomic number 50 (Tin)
- Teach students about solid state x-ray detection
- 0.55 keV energy resolution
- All software included
- USB powered
The X-Ray Energy Detector, together with the TEL-X-Ometer, can perform x-ray Flouresence on most common alloys. MCA software is included, making it quick and easy to display a graph of intensity as a function of energy. Comparison of this graph to reference data easily identifies the components of any alloy. The software includes functions to deconvolute nearby peaks, as well as noise removal. Individual pulses can also be displayed as a voltage vs. time graph for investigation into the behavior of the detector.
The X-Ray Energy Detector can be used to perform several instructive experiments. Students can investigate Mosley's law that the behavior of each element is defined by its atomic number. The spectra of 8 adjacent elements, from Vanadium to Zinc can be compared. Using this data, alloys can be compared. It is easy to identify the composition, for instance, of pennies produced before 1982 (95% copper) as compared with modern pennies (97.5% zinc). Stainless steel can also easily be distinguished from normal steel.
|Energy range:||approx. 2 keV to 30 keV|
|Energy resolution (FWHM):||0.55 keV at EFeKalpha = 6.40 keV|
|Entrance window:||Plastics (absorption equivalent to Graphite with d = 40 µm)|
|Detector:||Si-PIN photo diode|
|Active Area:||0.8 mm dia.|
|Thickness:||approx. 200 µm|
|Dead time per pulse:||approx. 200 µs|
|Charge sensitive preamplifier:||enclosed|
|Main amplifier with pulse shaping:||enclosed|
|Digital signal processing:||enclosed|
|Cable length:||1.75 m|
|Dimensions:||80 mm x 22 mm dia.|
- TEL 2591
TEL 2590 TEL-X-Driver
- Angular Resolution: up to 20 steps/degree
- Time per step: ≥ 0.1 seconds
- Approximate data range 12° - 120°
- Export data to text file for analysis
- Functions as a scaler for performing experiments of your choice
- GM tube voltage selectable 0-1000V
- X-ray tube current monitored
The TEL-X-Driver comes complete with everything you need to automate data taking with the TEL-X-Ometer. Take data from 12 to 120 degrees with a maximum resolution of 0.05 degrees. The time per step is also adjustable, and can be as little as .1 sec. Scans can be obtained for all 4 of the crystals available for use with the TEL-X-Ometer, NaCl, LiF, KCl, and RbCl.(Sample Data) An additional feature includes the ability to scan powders and foils.
The TEL-X-Driver is USB powered. A GM tube can be connected directly to this unit, negating the need for an additional scalar or ratemeter. Software allows selection of scan angles, resolution, and time/step. Data is automatically saved every 30 seconds thus preventing the loss of data during a long scan in the event of a power failure. Once the experiment is completed the software permits zoom-in on the data and the facility to add comments to the file. Data can be exported to a spreadsheet for further analysis.
Please note that the auxilary slide carriage can not be used concurrently with the TEL-X-Driver. Most experiments can be adapted to work without the auxilary slide carriage. If you would like information on performing a specific experiment without the auxilary slide carrige, please contact us.
- TEL 2590-2
TEL 582 Basic Accessory Kit
A Kit of 26 components includes Collimators, Luminescent Screen, Film Cassettes and all the items necessary to perform more than 30 experiments.
Thin foils of Nickel, Copper, Cobalt and Zinc are included which are used to evaluate the Mass Absorption Coefficient. They are also used in conjunction with a Rotary Radiator which presents these 4 elements, and in addition Iron, Vanadium, Manganese and Chromium, to the primary X-ray beam. These 8 elements are sequential in the Periodic Table and secondary emission from them is analyzed to verify Moseley’s Law. The classical Bragg relationship can be established using large single crystals of Sodium Chloride and Lithium Fluoride and additionally Planck’s Constant can be derived from the minimum wavelength cutoff. Small minicrystals of LiF are included to record Laue and upper layer-line photographs. Finely divided LiF powder and copper wire strands can be used to demonstrate Debye-Scherrer analytical techniques with a special self-locating Powder Camera. The Powder Camera and Film Cassette included in Kit 582 have been designed for use with the Filmpaks.
- TEL 582
TEL 583 Crystallography Kit
This kit of 16 prepared elements is intended to supplement the Basic Kit.
For a more comprehensive study of Moseley’s Law four more thin foil slides are included. They are Iron, Vanadium, Manganese and Chromium. Together with the 4 slides in the Basic Kit, there can now be 8 thin foil slides to be used in conjunction with the 8 -element Rotary Radiator.
There are 5 vials of finely divided powders, 2 vials of drawn wire and large single crystals of Potassium Chloride and Rubidium Chloride. All of these materials are used in a carefully integrated study of the salient features of crystallographic analysis.
The Kit contains a Reciprocal Lattice Calculator for calculating at which angles of the GM tube carriage (2θ) reflections may be expected from each of the four single crystals.
- TEL 583
TEL 584 Radiography Kit
This kit is also intended to supplement the Basic Kit. It is designed for teaching X-ray applications for nondestructive testing, and for adult education courses.
It includes 16 components with which the production and properties of X-rays can be studied. Additional emphasis is given to scattering, differential absorption and linear absorption coefficients; to the relationship between penetration, resolution and exposure time, accelerating voltage and tube current.
Experimental evidence of the importance of shielding materials, half thickness and radiation terminology are all highlighted through simple practical experience involving the components of the kit.
- TEL 584
TEL 2581 Miniature x-ray Tube
This is a hard vacuum, hot cathode X-ray tube designed for the Tel-X-Ometer. It has a copper target anode.
A thin concave bubble window of 0.25mm thickness is hand blown into the borosilicate glass envelope to transmit a high proportion of the characteristic radiation without recourse to other more expensive window techniques.
The cathode is a helical filament made of tungsten wire and the cathode/anode geometry provides a very small focal point.
- Continuous rating:
- 30kV, 80 µA
- Heater supply:
- 4V 1A
- 100mm long, 32mm diameter
- B13G type
- TEL 2581
TEL 587 Motorized Drive Unit
Rotation within the Powder Camera of single cyrstals and powders can be achieved using a Motorized Drive Unit which can be easily installed within the radiation scatter shield. The unit is electrically powered with its own switch and is supplied complete with a key to adjust the drive bevel position.
- TEL 587
TEL 750/2 and TEL 750/4 Filmpaks
The teaching impact of processing photographic film in the classroom immediately after exposure and without a dark room is obvious.High speed X-ray film is sealed in thin, black p.v.c. envelopes with two apertures to accept the injector tube of a syringe without admitting light. After exposure to beta-, gamma- or X-rays, film is developed rapidly by injecting the processing fluids in to the envelope which is thin enough to permit the necessary agitation. After processing is complete (about 2 minutes) the envelope is cut open and film removed with a special clip provided. Filmpaks 2 and 4 are supplied complete with syringe, injector tube, developer and fixer fluids and film clip.
X-ray film available in two sizes:
- TEL 750/2 Film and Chemicals for 20 radiographs (38x35mm)
- TEL 750/4 Film and Chemicals for 12 Powder camera experiments
- TEL 750/225 Film Only for 25 Radiographs
- TEL 750/425 Film only for 25 Powder Camera Experiments
TEL 2546/7 Geiger-Muller Tube With Holder
The majority of experiments which can be performed with the Tel-X-Ometer require the X-rays to be detected by a GM Tube in association with a Ratemeter or Scaler.
The typical intensities and recommended geometric conditions detailed in the laboratory manual are all relevant to the GM Tube TEL 2546/7. The Ratemeter TEL 2807 and the Scaler TEL 2806 have been designed to monitor Tel-X-Ometer experiments with both simplicity and maximum didactic impact.
- TEL 2546/7 Geiger-Muller Tube With Holder
TEL-33010 Kilovolt Power Supply
This kilovolt power supply is a floating high voltage source for use with electron tubes. A built-in high voltage resistant transformer supplies the heater voltage for the electron tubes. The high voltage is continuously adjustable and safe to touch. It has a passive current limitation in atdition to an analog voltage display.
|High voltage output:||0 - 5000 V DC, max. 2 mA|
|Heater voltage output:||6.3 V AC, max. 3 A, high voltage resistant up to 6 kV|
|Connections:||4 mm safety sockets|
|Dimensions:||235x130x155 mm approx.|
TEL 588 Ionization Chamber
A simple didactic ionization chamber which can be mounted on the slide carriage of the Tel-X-Ometer to investigate the ionizing intensity of the X-ray beam. It can also be used to calibrate the G.M. Tube.
The chamber is demountable and can be used at atmospheric pressure, evacuated or gas filled. It is supplied complete with open and closed windows and connectors. Polarization is up to 2,000 volts DC. A DC amplifier capable of measuring current down to 10-11 DC amps is required.
- TEL 588